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Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

Glenohumeral osteoarthritis with intact rotator cuff treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review

      Background

      Although reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has shown satisfactory outcomes in rotator cuff–deficient shoulders, its performance in shoulders with an intact rotator cuff has not been fully elucidated. Shoulder osteoarthritis can present with alterations in glenoid morphology, which have contributed to inconsistent outcomes in anatomic shoulder replacement. The glenoid component is responsible for a predominance of these arthroplasty complications. Given these glenoid-related difficulties, RSA may provide a more favorable option. We aimed to summarize the current literature on rotator cuff intact osteoarthritis treated with primary RSA and to determine whether morphologic changes in the glenoid led to inferior outcomes.

      Methods

      A literature search was performed using an inclusion criterion of primary RSA for osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff. The Modified Coleman Methodology Score was calculated to analyze reporting quality. Following appropriate exclusions, of the 1002 studies identified by the databases, 13 were selected.

      Results

      Postoperative improvement in weighted means for Constant scores reached statistical significance (P = .02). The mean rate of major complications was 3.8%. A subset of 8 studies was created that detailed the following descriptions of altered glenoid morphology: “static posterior instability,” “severe posterior subluxation,” “posterior glenoid wear >20°,” “significant posterior glenoid bone loss,” “biconcave glenoid,” “B2 glenoid,” and “B/C glenoid.” Within this subset, the mean complication rate was 4.7%, with 4 of the 7 studies having a rate ≤ 3%, and improvements in the Constant score (P = .002) and external rotation (P = .02) reached statistical significance.

      Discussion

      RSA as treatment for osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff provides optimal outcomes with low complication rates across a short term of follow up. Preoperative considerations for using reverse arthroplasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff include glenoid retroversion, posterior humeral subluxation, and glenoid bone loss. The attributes of reverse arthroplasty that contribute to favorable outcomes in arthritic shoulders include its semiconstrained design and robust glenoid fixation. Soft-tissue imbalances as a consequence of pathologic glenoid morphology and chronic humeral subluxation can be mitigated with the RSA semiconstrained design. Glenoid bone loss can be effectively managed with RSA’s robust glenoid fixation, with and without the use of bone graft. The capability to lateralize the joint center of rotation may be valuable when faced with a medialized glenoid wear pattern. The current findings suggest that reverse arthroplasty can achieve highly favorable outcomes for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff.

      Level of evidence

      Keywords

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