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Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

Reoperated clavicular nonunion treated with osteogenic protein 1 and electrical stimulation

      Clavicular fractures are common, and nonunion of nonoperated midshaft fractures is rare, with a reported incidence between 1% and 4%.
      • Eskola A.
      • Vaianionpaa S.
      • Myllynen P.
      Surgery for ununited clavicular fracture.
      • Johnson Jr, E.W.
      • Collins H.R.
      Nonunion of the clavicle.
      • Neer II, C.S.
      Nonunion of the clavicle.
      Management of patients who have symptomatic nonunion has involved the use of various surgical techniques, the most common being either intramedullary fixation or rigid internal fixation with plates.
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